Just like any other yarn, Air Covered Yarn also experiences some faults which are caused mainly by two issues – Positional Faults and General Faults. Below are some of the faults that are seen in Air Covered Yarn.

  1. Filamentation:
    1. Positional causes:
      1. Damaged/worn guides
      2. Dirty heaters
      3. Damaged friction discs
      4. Waste on feed rollers/bowl
      5. Misthreading
      6. Mechanical damage to supply yarn
    2. General Causes:
      1. Draw ratio too high
      2. Heater temperature too high
      3. Speed ratio too high
      4. D/Y ratio too low
      5. Supply type/finish unsuitable
  1. High break rate
    1. Positional causes:
      1. Worn nip rollers
      2. Supply package misaligned
      3. Damaged friction discs
      4. Misthreading
      5. Damaged or badly wound supply yarn
    2. General Causes:
      1. Speed too high
      2. Draw ratio in correct
      3. D/Y ratio too high or low
      4. Heater temperature too high
      5. Ambient conditions incorrect
      6. Supply type/finish unsuitable
  1. Tight spots
    1. Positional causes:
      1. Worn nip rollers
      2. Incorrect threading
    2. General Causes:
      1. Unstable process specification
      2. D/Y not optimum
      3. Supply irregularity
  1. Dye/Bulk variation
    1. Positional causes:
      1. Heater temperature fault
      2. Heater cold top (dark dye)
      3. Damaged friction discs
      4. Incorrect twisting unit speed
      5. Damaged or worn guides
      6. Take-up tension variation (bulk)
      7. Worn/damaged nip roller
    2. General Causes:
      1. Unsuitable process specification
      2. Dirty heaters
      3. Supply irregularity
  1. Webbing/ overthrows
    1. Positional causes:
      1. Misaligned cradle
      2. Stroke too long
      3. Loose or worn traverse guide
      4. Wear or damage in traverse box
      5. Cradle catching on feed, back arm
      6. Point of origin guide not central
    2. General Causes:
      1. Take-up tension too high
      2. Wind angle too low
      3. Taper angle too low
      4. Radial disturbance too high
      5. Axial displacement very high
  1. Poor package unwinding
    1. Positional causes:
      1. Stroke length incorrect
      2. Cradle settings incorrect
      3. Filamentation in textured yarn
      4. Yarn coming out of traverse guide
      5. Package webbed
      6. General Causes:
        1. Take-up tension too slow
        2. Wind angle too high
        3. Taper angle too low
        4. Incorrect oil
        5. Filamentation in textured yarn
        6. Radial / axial disturbance link out of phase




Package winding conditions in Air Covered Yarn, should be kept in check to ensure resulting end package is optimum and as per quality standards. These conditions should be kept in control throughout entire Air covered yarn manufacturing process; any slight change in any one of these conditions at any given instant of the process will lead to variation in the end package, which may either result in faults in package or undesirable package hardness.

The package winding variables which are to be kept in constant check are as below:

  • Take-up overfeed,
  • Traverse speed,
  •  Axial/radial disturbance,
  • Taper angle and
  • Oil roller speed

Taper angle is usually pre-determined, dependent on Decitex, and is not varied at this stage unless package build and unwinding become a problem, in which case it is normal to increase taper angle.

Traverse speed should be set to give the correct wind angle. Take up overfeed should then be set to give the correct package winding tension. If it is required to change the package winding tension by only a small amount, this can be done by small changes in traverse speed.

Axial/ radial disturbances should be set at the recommended level.




May 20th holds an important place in the history of “Jeans” as birthday of “Blue Jeans”. On this date in 1873, Blue Jean made its debut, as one of the American companies received a US patent for this.

This year, Sunday May 20th marks 145th Birthday of Blue Jeans.

Jeans is iconic garment made by “Denim” fabric, which is sturdy cotton warp-faced fabric having white filling in reverse direction. Jeans is generally characterized by strength, tear resistance and visually appealing blue shade, which fades each time the garment, undergoes laundering.

Changing fashion styles and attitudes altered the look of the blue jean over time, but until recently, the blue jean had remained true blue to its cotton origins. The recent influx of man-made fibers into blue jeans is not a good fit for many consumers and could affect the care, wear and expected five-year longevity of their beloved blue jeans.

The history of denim as being all cotton, comfortable and crazy durable earned it a spot quickly with folks who work hard physically like farmers and workers in the industrial spaces like miners, mechanics, shop floor workers.

The denim fabric from which jeans are made is very strong, rugged and has good tear resistance, thus protecting the wearer in these work profiles and lasting longer as required by the professional requirements and economic conditions.

Denim and the beloved blue jeans have continued to catch on and now we can find really expensive fashion jeans or cheaper work cuts.

While the addition of a small amount of spandex or something to cotton to help jeans keep their shape, king cotton hits the nail on the head when it comes to denim that includes higher percentages of man-made fibers.

Consumers love denim. Lifestyle Monitor data indicates that U.S. consumers own an average of 7 pairs of denim and wear jeans an average of four days a week. We also feel that almost 60% of consumers would pay a little extra to get more cotton back into those jeans, which justifies the higher cost of cotton over synthetics.

And when traveling across the globe, you find denim as the largest adorned garment across all age groups and sex.  Initially, Jeans were meant for men only and jeans for women made debut in 1934.

Initially all the jeans had buttons in their fly instead of zippers like nowadays. But in 1954 zippers were introduced in Jeans and they still are used to this day.

In late 1970s, another synthetic fiber got introduced as ingredient in jeans and this led to new category of stretch jeans, thus slimming down the shape and fit of these jeans which were initially made in a baggy style to suit the needs of primary consumers. This gave rise to designer jeans in the fashion and life space.

These days, variation of jeans falling in super stretch category is also available in fashion space and loosely termed as jeggings, but still the demand of old Blue Jeans is ever increasing proving the impact it has on our lives and our grown attachment to it.

Jeans is such a garment that is found in almost every individual’s wardrobe regardless of the geographic, ethnic or religious stance.

Let’s celebrate the birthday of the remarkable piece of history, fashion and lifestyle on this Sunday, May 20th.

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Another performance wear in which spandex plays a major role is a “Triathlon suit” or “Tri-suit”. For people like you and me this is a new word out of the blue but Triathlon suit is actually a widely used performance wear and requires a lot of technicalities to manufacture.

It is a clothing item specially worn in “Triathlon” which is a sporting event which was originated in 1920’s. It’s an Olympic level sport; comprising of multiple-stage competition of three continuous and sequential endurance sports. There are many variations of the sport but most popular one is which involves swimming, cycling and running in immediate sequence over a distance.

The basic element (fibre) required to manufacture a triathlon suit is spandex fibre, as all the properties which are required in a triathlon suit are easily achievable by using spandex fibre in the making. The properties are as below:

  • 1. Quick drying
  • 2. Durable
  • 3. Stretchable
  • 4. Close Fitting
  • 5. Chlorine resistant
  • 6. Shape retention

Thus Spandex fibre which when paired up with other fibres becomes best choice for manufacturing a triathlon suit. The other fibres which are paired up with the spandex to manufacture a tri-suit are mainly Nylon and Polyester. The nylon and polyester fibre are combined with spandex fibre via knitting process, hence producing a knitted fabric used for manufacturing the tri-suit. The high-end tri-suits manufacturers primarily prefer to use nylon fibre over polyester fibre with spandex to get over-all high end product and desirable properties.

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Spandex since its invention in 1956 has changed the direction of the textile industry. Developed as an alternative to rubber, spandex has completely taken over the stretch market in clothing and various other segments of the textile industry. Spandex not only gives ultimate stretch but also soft feel and desirable comfort along with required strength when paired with right fibre for multiple uses. Along with textile industry spandex has also found its various uses in hospitality and industrial industries.

From a t-shirt to automobiles spandex is used everywhere, where even a slight bit of stretch is required. Spandex was first used in making ladies foundation garments like pantyhose, stockings etc. Then it forayed into sportswear (cycling shorts etc.), dancing wear, tights, and swimwear. Then the time came of stretch denims. Nowadays with technical advances the range of use of spandex has increased more than ever.

There are mainly two types of application where Spandex is used:

  1. 1. Regular applications
  2. 2. Advanced applications

Regular applications:

They mainly include products from textile industry and specifically from apparel sector i.e. clothing. These applications include:

  • 1. Active / outdoor wear
  • 2. Denim
  • 3. Hosiery and leggings
  • 4. Intimate apparels
  • 5. Ready to wear
  • 6. Swimwear

Advanced applications:

They include all the segments where spandex has recently ventured into and has gained a significant ground.

1. Medical support products:

  • Knee or back braces
  • Surgical elastic bandage
  • Body Implant materials
  • Leather tube

2. Hygiene: making diapers  for children as well as adults

  • Motion capture suits

3. Compression garments: 

  • Surgical hose
  • Support hose etc.

4. Sports:

  • Volleyballs and Soccer balls
  • Netball bodysuits

5. Automobiles:

  • Manufacture of door panel fabrics that stretch and adhere to the door
  • Car seat fabric

6. Footwear: to ensure that the footwear gives the wearer required fit and doesn’t slag off after a while.

7. Household products:

  • Fitted sheets and
  • Micro-bead pillows etc.

8. Spandex table coverings – elastic nature of fiber ensures that the cloth is durable enough to withstand the wear that accompanies frequent use.

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