Significance of Air Pressure in Air Covered Yarns

Air-covered yarn production incorporates the usage of two different materials, one is elastic and the other is non-elastic. Of the two, the non-elastic yarns are the one that has filament such as polyester, which accounts to enrich the evenness, durability, aesthetics, and functional properties of the fabrics. While for the elastic yarn, lycra is used as a core material. Elastic core yarns usually have greater uniformity in size, strength, and elongation. 

These yarns have the advantage of uniformity in length, plus the used fabrics are cover and abrasion-resistant. The higher initial modulus and stretch resistance contribute to a better loop formation, excellent abrasion resistance and durability, which are the added advantages of the air-covered yarn.

Air Covered Yarn can be divided into two categories:

  • Nylon ACY
  • Polyester ACY

Yarn manufacturing companies produce air-covered yarn, which is further used to make different types of clothes including comfortable wear such as socks, underwear, and swimwear. Additionally, the air-covered yarns possess significant elasticity and can be designed for knitted, sewed, and woven fabrics depending on the properties.

Air Pressure effect on the yarn production 

As mentioned earlier, the production of air-covered yarn leverages an elastic yarn such as lycra and a non-elastic yarn such as polyester.  The polyester yarn contains filaments that aid in enriching the abrasion resistance and uniformity in length for the Air covered Yarn. On the other hand, while testing the effects of air pressure on air-covered yarn, elastic core-spun yarns are used and lycra remains the core material of inelastic yarn. 

The usual parameters of the air-covering machine are as follows:

  • Delivery speed- 110 meters/min
  • Air pressure- 4,6,8 kg/cm2
  • Elastic draw ratio- 2
  • Overfeed to jet %- 5

Given that the air pressure is the most crucial aspect of Air Covered Yarn production, there are a few characteristics that are tested for in the air covered yarn:

  • Denier of air covered yarn

The denier of the air-covered yarn is nothing but the unit of measurement for the linear mass density of used fiber.

The denier of fiber is measured by preparing lea on hank meter and weighing it on weighing pan. This is done by preparing the lea by wrapping the reel for 80 revolutions of a 120 yards long and then the denier calculated.

The pressure is increased from 4kg/cm2 to 8kg/cm2 and it is obvious that the denier of the yarn increases with the increase of the pressure. On the whole, the increase in denier is a consequence of the increase in the bulkiness of the air-covered yarn.

  • Loop density

The properties of the air-covered yarn are directly associated with the number of loops, thus it is very important to measure the number of loops per 1m of yarn when it’s in an ideal state.

It should be noted that the loop density increases with the increase in pressure. This is due to the fact that the height of the loop changes as the air pressure changes, which results in an increased number of loops when the length of the yarn remains the same.

  • Contents of the components in the yarn

Lycra and polyester are the two components of the air-covered yarn, Hence it’s vital to separately calculate the amount of both. It is done by weighing 1m of air-covered yarn. Then, Lycra is separated from the yarn and is being weighed. Now weighing the leftover part gives the weight of the available polyester.

Also, it is usually observed that as the by increasing pressure, the lycra content decreases while the polyester content increases. Hence, it’s clear that the percentage of both the components i.e lycra and polyester changes as per the pressure variations.

Concusion 

The combination of two or more yarns is used in the usual process of air covering yarn, which results in the formation of yarns having unique characteristics. Air pressure plays a vital role in the formation of these characteristics by the adjusting the air pressure between 4 to 6 and 8 kg/cm2.

By all apperances, the change in the pressure has a notable effect on the air covered yarn’s characteristics including loop density, loop stability, denier of the yarn,and the lycra and polyester content. Also, it results in a decrease in the lycra content and loop instability.

Know about Circular Knitting Machines and types of Knit Fabrics

Circular knitting is a form of knitting that creates a seamless tube. The casting on stitches is done similarly as in flat knitting but the ends of that row of stitches are joined to form a circle. 

Circular knitting, nowadays, is done by knitting machines. A double-bed machine, for example, can be set up to knit on its front bed in one direction and on its back bed on the return, which creates the complete tube. However, the knitting machines for sock-knitting use unique latch-hook needles to make each stitch in a round frame.

Advantages of Circular Knitting Machine 

  • Less load by higher precision 
  • Enhanced quality of plated fabric 
  • Extended needle life 
  • Less friction for each part 
  • Less Maintenance Cost

Different Types of Knitted Fabrics:

Depending on how the loops are made; two types of knitting are there:

  1. Weft knitted fabrics 
  2. Warp knitted fabrics

1. Weft knitting 

A fabric formation method in which the loops are made in a horizontal direction from a single yarn and the intermeshing of loops can take place both in a circular or flat form. The fabric formed by this method is very elastic, comfortable, and warm to wear. 

Below are a few most-common Weft Knit Fabrics Structures:

Single jersey knit fabric 

Single jersey is the most simplistic and reasonable weft structure to produce and is widely used for T-shirts, casual tops, hosiery, etc. 

Weft knitted single jersey elastic fabrics are usually made by plating lycra (spandex) with cotton yarn in a circular knitting machine. This type of fabric and the material produced out of it have a great response and gain their original size and shape after physical extension. Lycra yarn possesses the capability to produce shapewear demanding large stretch and dimensional recovery that cannot be achieved by cotton yarn alone.

Features of Jersey Knit Fabric:

  • Lightweight
  • Less stretchy unless the material has spandex in it
  • Visible right and wrong side of the fabric
  • Edges curl up easily while pulling

Rib (double jersey) knit fabric 

This type of fabric is produced by mesh wales of knit and purl stitch and is usually knitted with two sets of needles. The rib-knit fabric has an upright cord appearance making it twice as thick as plain knit with greater stability. 

They can be produced either in a flat or circular knitting machine. The rib-knit is commonly used in the hemming and neckline of sweaters. Some other modifications of rib knit are Cable fabric, Bird’s eye, Cardigans, Milano’s ribs. 

Features of Rib Knit Fabric:

  • This fabric is heavier as compared to Jersey
  • It is generally very stretchy among the 3 basic types of knit fabrics, however, the 1×1 rib is more stretchy than the 2×2 rib
  • No notable distinction for the right and wrong side of the fabric
  • It isn’t so smooth unlike Jersey knit
  • The edges of rib-knit don’t curl up when pulled

Interlock knit fabric 

This is a type of double-layered knitted structure designed by meshing knit and purl stitch in both wales on a knitting machine equipped with two sets of needles. The interlock knit resembles jersey knit on both front and back.

However, this fabric has greater dimensional stability than a single jersey and all other types of knitting and it does not curl up on edges. But, this fabric stretches more along the lengthwise direction than in breadthwise. The structure of the interlock knit fabric offers enhanced insulation as it is able to trap air between its layers. Such fabrics are most often used in the production of sweatshirts, table mats, etc.

Features of Interlock Knit Fabric:

  • It is heavier and thicker than a jersey
  • Interlock knit is not too stretchy as compared to Jersey
  • This fabric is reversible, as there’s no right or wrong side

2. Warp knitting 

This type of knitting is a method of fabric formation in which the loops are made along the length of the fabric in a vertical way and there is a needle for each yarn. The knitted stitches in these fabrics have a crisscross diagonal appearance that appears smoother than weft knitted fabrics. 

Although warp knitting shows less elasticity than weft knitting, yet it becomes favorable over weft in properties like soft and drapey, higher density, warm to wear. Through the Warp Knitting process, various types of yarn can be prepared like combed, staple, carded and filament, which is not feasible with weft knitting.

Below are a few most-common Warp Knit Fabrics Structures:

The warp knitted fabrics are usually divided into three primary structures:

Tricot knits 

This type of knitting leverages a single set of beard needles and thread yarns. The multifilament yarn face stitches are vertical to the backstitch, which offer a smooth surface with a thick stitch. 

It gives good air/water permeability, softness, crease-resistance, drape; owing to its structure. Tricot knits are mostly used in lingerie, nightwear, dresses, etc. 

Raschel knits

These knitted fabrics are made using a single set of latch needles and spun yarns. The knits can be lacy, deeply patterned, and even stacked. The properties of Raschel Knitted Fabrics comprise a fabric that can be dense or compact, open or lofty, stable or stretchy, single-faced or reversible. 

These fabrics can be easily identified by their intricate designs and such fabrics can be used in almost any garment type due to the high customization of the raschel machine from lightweight lace to heavy chenille.

Milanese knit

This fabric is made up of two sets of yarns knitted diagonally. The face side has a fine vertical rib and the reverse has a diagonal structure. It is lightweight, drapey, smooth, and is mostly used for gloves.

Despite the above-mentioned basic types, there are numerous knitted fabrics made with various modifications. The flat or jersey knit can be modified by using different yarns or double-looped stitches of different lengths to make fabrics such as velour, terry, and plush.

Allied to it, there are also specialized weft knits available such as Intarsia, Fleece, Jacquard Jerseys, Knitted Velour, Knitted Terry, French Terry.

Semi Dull Spandex – Elimination Of Grin Through Effect

Grin through effect has been a flaw and an area of concern in the garment industry. This effect has tampered with the looks of a lot of apparels and each and every arena. It basically refers to the popping out of the shiny spandex from inside of the fabric tampering the original colour and finesse of the apparel. The appearance of threads typically spandex from inside the cloth while stretching it refers to the grin through effect. Hence, the elimination is a very important step towards the enhancement of the fabric and the garment industry as a whole.

Industry has been using deeper shades of inviy as hard yarns to eliminate the problem of grin through and attain colour uniformity. The flaws are visible in various areas especially in sheer hosiery, where the product is really fine and in sportswear, a lot of sports leggings have this problem of grinning through as they are very stretchable and take the form of the skin, hence making the spandex within appear.  To alleviate this flaw and reach an optimum level of elimination of spandex through the clothes there has to be the usage of a semi dull spandex incorporated in the process of manufacturing.

A semi dull spandex will hide evenly beneath the fabric and one such is recently launched with the name of INVIYA STOLID I-400. Stolid literally meaning “dull with no brightness” has rendered to the needs of modern-day problems in the apparel industry. STOLID I-400 when processed with hard yarns and dyed is not visible at all putting an end to the problem of grin through. Indorama industries has done this with the modification of their polymer which made a duller spandex. The stretch/recovery of the apparel will be retained with the use of Stolid, making it a highly functional yarn. The usage of stolid comes with its perks to the end customers as well as to the supply chain.

Indorama industries is currently providing with stolid I-400 which has a value derivative of

  • Can be used with deeper shades in synthetics.
  • Colour uniformity in the fabric.
  • Stretch/recovery without grin through
  • Resistant to chlorine making it ideal for swimwear.
  • Reduction in moire effect.
  • Adding finesse to the fabric.
  • Better colour reflection on the surface of the fabric.

This will altogether revolutionize the garment industry especially the stretch related sector. The impending flaw of bright spandex which had its place everywhere will finally come to an end. The dominance of stolid I-400 can be seen in various areas

  • Beach wear
  • Swimwear
  • Sheer hosiery
  • Sportswear
  • Medical equipment like gloves etc.
  • Athleisure
  • Intimate wear
  • Compression garments
  • Denim
  • Day to day clothing.  

These properties will enhance the manufacturing of the apparels along with an added value of quality stretch. So “stretch with no stress”, as now the fabrics with light or deeper shades will not lose their shine and lustre because of the shiny spandex which was used earlier. The sheer hosiery will literally act as a second skin to the wearer taking the shape of the body without the appearance of what is used inside. Athleisure will not appear as faded when stretched with the use of this semi dull spandex. STOLID I-400 has high power with optimum fit and shape retention. It is also resistant to heat and dyes which makes it blend easily in the manufacturing process. Therefore, the elimination of grin through is possible with the usage of semi dull spandex with optimum outputs making stretching easy and comfortable with providing desired fit to the wearer without compromising on the quality.

Are you choosing the best fabric for your activewear?

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In the contemporary era, the activewear market has surged with a wide range of activewear clothing items for every sporting need. Selecting the best activewear fabric is not only a crucial step as it works as a game-changer, but also the right activewear can help you in achieving your fitness goals while keeping the injuries at the sidelines. Whereas the lack of having the appropriate activewear fabric can aid in posing an adverse effect on your performance. 

Be it sports jerseys, gym wears, or any activewear gear there’s one thing common which is spandex fabric. Spandex is said to be the best workout material and it is widely used for sporting gears because of its distinctive properties. Inviya Spandex not only does not ensure comfort and stretch but also wicks the moisture and prevents blisters.

Thinking about what qualities an ideal activewear fabric should have? 

Let’s discuss the features that the best activewear fabric should have!! 

  • Moisture Regulation: While working out, there is a need for functional sportswear, which wricks the moisture outside of the material. Whereas if the activewear fabric doesn’t wick the moisture away it will ultimately make it heavy and increase the chances of blisters and cramps while working out. So that it doesn’t make the garment heavy and uncomfortable, When the garment possesses moisture-wicking quality it also keeps the blisters away.
  • Durability: Activewear should be strong & durable, imagine wearing low-quality activewear that tears off in a couple of workout training sessions? Workouts include a lot of rapid movements, hence a strong fabric is needed which can stretch perfectly without breaking. Hence it is always better to invest in premium quality activewear that stands strong and durable over several intense workout sessions.
  • Comfort:  Inappropriate garments can adversely impact your performance. Imagine wearing a sports bra that is tight and keeps digging in your back while you work out? Or a legging that’s too tight or loose? It can cause discomfort that will make you lose your focus. When you’re working out, the first and foremost thing you want is for your garment to feel comfortable, so selecting the garment which is comfortable and of the right size is an essential step. 
  • Stretchable: Any sporting activity includes the expansion of muscles, hence expanding of muscles requires a fabric that can stretch without breaking or causing any restrictions, Spandex fiber is said to be the strongest fabric as it can expand 10 times more than its capacity without breaking. So while selecting the activewear fabric make sure that it stretches easily.
  • Flattering Fit: In the era of fitness fiestas, who doesn’t want to look stylish and trendy even in the gym or while a yoga session? Everyone wants it! Activewear should perform well during the sessions and offer a flattering trendy fit so you can look stylish and work out comfortably.
  • Cost-Effective: A comfortable and stretchable activewear does not mean expensive activewear, the best activewear fabric should possess all the qualities at a budget-friendly price. 

Finally

When fabrics are blended with spandex it gives all-in-one features like comfort, style, and a trendy chic look and feel. Whether you wear your activewear as casual wear or gym wear, the right activewear garment shouldn’t compromise with its performance. Now that you know how to choose the right fabric for your intense workout sessions, fill your closet with comfortable gears that can help you in achieving your workout goals without any restrictions.

What makes spandex the best fabric for swimwear?

It’s undeniable true that the quality of swimwear fabric has a direct impact on the performance of the swimmer. Since ideal swimwear fabric offers a perfect stretch and dries real quick, Spandex for swimwear posses all the qualities of the best swimwear fabric. 

Spandex fabric wricks off the moisture quickly and provides an accurate amount of stretch and comfort to the swimwear whereas natural fabrics like organic cotton and wool are not usually regarded as the best fabric for swimwear as it dries really slow making the swimwear heavier and impractical.

Spandex is an ideal fabric for swimwear but it can’t stand alone so it’s blended with fabrics like nylon to create shape retention and a stable look. When Spandex is added to swimwear fabrics, it increases the durability and functionality while offering an amazing swimming experience.

Wondering what qualities make spandex the best fabric for swimwear?

Let’s walk through a few distinctive qualities of spandex that make it ideal for swimwear.

  • Stretchable: Spandex is said to be the strongest fabric because of its stretchiness. Spandex can stretch 10 times more than rubber without breaking, which helps swimmers to swim without any discomfort. And the best part about spandex is that it also stretches underwater whereas other fabrics don’t.
  • Amazing Recovery: After stretching underwater, spandex can attain its original shape which is the quality of ideal swimwear fabric. If the swimwear will not attain the original shape then it will impact the performance of the swimmer negatively.
  • Dries Quickly: Spandex wricks away the moisture quickly which does not make the swimwear heavy and let the swimmer swim without any restrictions.
  • Durable: Spandex fiber is known to be the strongest yet durable fabric. It holds the shape inside or outside the water. Moreover, when spandex is added to the swimwear it automatically enhances the life of the swimwear so it doesn’t lose its shape easily.
  • Enhances the quality:  When spandex is blended with premium quality fabric it elevates the quality of the swimwear which prevents the swimwear from any injuries and rashes.
  • Cost-Effective: Spandex is a great package of all the qualities that are required in an ideal swimwear, and the best part is that it is cost-effective as compared to other fabrics.
  • Elegant & Comfortable look: Spandex fabric offers body-hugging stretch which helps you to flaunt your curves comfortably and also gives an astonishing look. Also, spandex is one of the softest fabrics that allows the swimmer to move freely and comfortably.
  • Resistance: Spandex is resistant to body oil, chlorine, swear, and saltwater. This distinctive quality of spandex is just like the cherry on the cake which makes it more suitable for swimwear.

The best swimwear fabric is the one that fulfills the needs of a swimmer without offering any discomfort, while selecting the best fabric for swimwear you may need to rethink and consider various factors i.e: comfort, stretch, water resistance, and so on.

Most swimwear’s believe that different fabrics behave differently underwater. Each fabric fits and feels different so it is crucial to select the right fabric that enhances performance and comfort.

So next time you go swimwear shopping don’t forget to check on the fabric that can elevate or demote your swimming experience.